Press release previews from the teams ahead of this weekend's races at Indianapolis:
Team Estrella Galicia 0,0 return to action at Indianapolis
Fabio Quartararo and Jorge Navarro head to the USA with the team to compete in the Indianapolis Grand Prix this weekend.
After a three-week break, the Moto3 World Championship resumes with teams travelling to the United States for Round 10 of the series.
With half the season already completed and valuable experience accumulated, Team Estrella Galicia 0,0 riders Fabio Quartararo and Jorge Navarro are highly motivated for the second part of the campaign. The pair will be back onboard their bikes this Friday for the first practice sessions at the legendary Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
Quartararo arrives in Indianapolis seventh overall, with 74 points to his name and having taken to the podium twice: Once at the GP of the Americas and again at the Dutch TT (finishing 2nd in both races). Teammate Jorge Navarro has shown great progress and has achieved his best results in the last three races –in which he has fought hard in the leading group. The Spaniard’s efforts have led to him accumulating a total of 54 points, which place him eleventh in the overall standings.
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Did you know?
The legendary Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS) was officially opened with balloon races on June 5th, 1909 and the first motorcycle race there was held on August 14th of that same year, followed by car racing on August 19th. Despite its antiquity, it was only in 2008 that the first MotoGP race was held at the Brickyard, on a heavily modified track layout using parts of the legendary oval. The MotoGP track has a length of 4.17km and consists of 16 corners -10 left handers 6 right handers. It incorporates the main straight with its historic line of bricks belonging to the original asphalt, left intact when the circuit was resurfaced in October 1961.
There is a tradition at the circuit called "The Kissing of the Bricks" initiated by NASCAR champion Dale Jarrett. After his victory in the 1996 Brickyard 400, Jarrett and crew chief Todd Parrott decided to go to the finish line, kneel and kiss the bricks to pay tribute to the legendary history of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. That started a tradition that has been continued since then by all the winners of the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 races.
Estrella Galicia 0,0 rider
7th in Overall Standings with 74 points
"Austin went very well for us and I hope I have the same feeling at this circuit"
"I can’t wait to get to Indianapolis and ride my bike again, especially after not finishing the German Grand Prix. Austin went very well for us and I hope I have the same feeling at this circuit, and that I can fight in the leading group as I did at the Dutch TT. We will work like we did at the last Grand Prix, progressing gradually in each practice to get a good setup and good feeling at a circuit that is unfamiliar to me and where I hope to do as well as possible."
Estrella Galicia 0,0 rider
11th in Overall Standings with 54 points
"I rode at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway last year and I had a good feeling"
"After the summer break everybody is eager to get back riding. In the three-week break we have had time to rest and to continue training to get stronger for the second part of the season. I rode at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway last year and I had a good feeling there, because I adapted very well to the track. I started from the second row of the grid for the race and it was very exciting for me. For the race this year we will follow the methodology that we applied at the last Grand Prix, taking small steps forward and building session after session. I think that after the experience we have gained in the races so far, we arrive in Indianapolis very motivated to prepare to fight in the front group."
Moto2 championship battle resumes at Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Gosselies, Belgium – 3 August 2014: Team Estrella Galicia 0,0 Marc VDS head across the Atlantic this week, for round ten of the 2015 Moto2 World Championship at the iconic Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
Well rested after the summer break, and with his collarbone injury now fully healed, Tito Rabat heads to the Brickyard determined to take the fight to current championship leader, Johann Zarco. The reigning World Champion currently trails the Frenchman by 64 points in the standings, a deficit he is keen to reduce, starting this weekend in Indianapolis.
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway was where Álex Márquez secured his first ever World Championship podium finish back in 2013 and the 19-year-old Spaniard is looking forward to making his return this weekend. The last few races before the summer break saw a big improvement from Márquez, as he continues his transition to Moto2 and the reigning Moto3 World Champion heads into the second half of the season looking for his first podium finish in the intermediate class.
“We head to Indianapolis after three weeks of relaxing on holiday, but we must see how is the rhythm and the collarbone. I have been training over the break and I feel strong, but we will see. My approach is the same; focus on what we need to do in Indianapolis, work with the team to make sure we have the most competitive package for the race and then try to finish as close to the front as possible.”
“Indianapolis is where I secured my first World Championship podium, so it’s a special track for me. The track has changed a little bit, but it’s still one that I like. I’m really motivated to get back to racing after the break. I come back refreshed, with more power to try and improve my performance in the second half of the season. We are going in the right direction with the bike, so we just need to work a little bit more if I am to achieve my aim of finishing on the podium before the year is out.”
Michael Bartholemy: Team Principal
“The summer break has allowed everyone in the team, riders included, to recharge their batteries ready for the second half of the season. For Tito it has also allowed him to recover fully from the collarbone injury and the crash that cost him a podium finish in Sachsenring. Johann Zarco has a commanding lead in the championship standings, but it’s not insurmountable and we go into the last nine races of the season determined to make a battle of it. We saw Álex make some big steps forward in the races ahead of the summer break and I’m confident we’re going to be seeing a lot more of him at the front of races in the second half of the season, as he pushes for his first podium finish in Moto2.”
Moto3 - San Carlo Team Italia gets back on track in Indianapolis
First round after the summer break for Stefano Manzi and Matteo Ferrari
After the summer break, San Carlo Team Italia gets ready to go back on track during the weekend of 7th-9th August at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, scenery of the tenth seasonal round of the Moto3 World Championship. Leaving behind a period that was not impressive in terms of results, the riders of the Italian Motorcycling Federation will work hard with the team, in order to reach again the convincing levels highlighted in the first part of the season.
This year in the points at Le Mans, Stefano Manzi will have to discover, during the weekend, a track that is completely unknown for him. The right approach from the first free practice should allow to the sixteen-year-old rider from Rimini, to work in the best way with the team in order to find a suitable setup for his riding style, getting closer to the speed potential of bike,rider and team. Same situation for Matteo Ferrari who got his first ever point in World Championship in 2013 with a fifteenth place here in Indianapolis.
For the Grand Prix of Indianapolis San Carlo Team Italia will race in mourning in memory of Hamza Sofuoglu, first child of Kenan, tragically passed away in the last days. With this action, sign of respect to a friend, San Carlo Team Italia wants to be close in this difficult moment to the family of the current rider of the Puccetti Team in the Supersport World Championship.
Cristiano Migliorati (Sports Manager - San Carlo Team Italia Moto3)
"This long summer break was needed to the whole team. Since last February we are constantly travelling for tests and races, so these three weeks off were necessary to charge the battery and to find new energy to start the second part of the season in the right way. At the same time, this break offered to the whole team the opportunity to take stock of the situation, analysing what didn't work in the first nine races. Riders, mechanics, manager, everyone in the team has reflected, finding where we should improve from now on. For this reason the start of the second part of the season must represent a turning point, necessary to reach again high levels , in line with our potential and with the purpose of the Team Italia project.".
ACTION RESUMES AT THE BRICKYARD FOR BASTIANINI AND LOCATELLI
After the summer break, the 2015 Moto3 World Championship is ready to resume action on the famous track of Indianapolis, theater this weekend's tenth round. The two Gresini Racing Team Moto3 racers, Enea Bastianini and Andrea Locatelli, arrive in the United States boosted by a positive first half of the season and ready to take more satisfaction in a second half of the championship that promises to be extremely fought.
In the nine races held so far, Bastianini was really close to victory on several occasions, climbing four times on the podium and totaling 124 points, a haul that allows him to occupy currently the second position in the overall standings, behind English Danny Kent.
His team mate Locatelli, who returned to fight in the leading group at the Sachsenring, scored points on five out of nine occasions so far and he will aim to stay again into the leading group at Indy, to try to improve what currently is his best result of the season, the seventh place collected last April in Austin.
“Last year at Indy my race weekend was a bit unlucky, compromised by a run off the track in the early stages of the race. However, in the latter part I managed to maintain a strong pace, reaching the leading group, so this means that I like the track. We arrive in the United States really confident and aware that we can do well. In the summer break I was able to relax myself, even though of course I continued to train hard: after a positive first half of the season, closed with the second place in the standings, our goal in this second part of the season is to make a further step forward in order to try to beat Kent, who so far has been really fast”.
“I took advantage of the summer break to train hard: let’s say that I have not done a lot of holidays, but I took advantage of the sunny days to work hard in order to resume the championship in perfect shape! In Indianapolis last year I had some problems and my weekend didn’t go as I wanted: however, I like the track and especially I love to be back in the US, where there is always a special atmosphere that gives me a great charge. I hope to start immediately well the weekend using the good base set-up we reached at the Sachsenring and above all I hope that the rear end chatter which has slowed us down in several races won’t be an issue this time. Anyway I’m confident, we are all working very well and if we continue to work on the right direction we can get a good result”.
“The balance of the first half of the season is undoubtedly positive: Enea has collected four podiums and Andrea has scored points on five occasions, sometimes even showing the potential to fight into the leading group. We resume the challenge from Indy aware of our means and willing to take another step forward: so far with Bastianini we lacked only the win, a goal that is within our reach and that we hope to achieve soon. With Andrea instead our goal is to keep the good level we showed in Germany at every race: if we succeed, we can have great satisfactions also with him”.
SIMEON READY TO KICK START SECOND HALF OF THE SEASON AT INDIANAPOLIS
Closed in the best possible way the first half of the season with a great victory in the German Grand Prix, last July 12th at the Sachsenring, Xavier Siméon and the Team Federal Oil Gresini Moto2 are ready to get back on track this weekend at Indianapolis to face the tenth race on the calendar, the Indianapolis Grand Prix, which marks the start of the second half of the season.
Thanks to the first win achieved in Germany, Simeon arrives in the United States with 84 points in the standings, where he’s currently sixth. The target is clearly to continue to fight for the top positions, on another track that promises to be favorable.
“I spent a nice summer break, celebrating the victory with my friends and my family, then training hard in Spain. Winning is a great feeling, but… I’ve already forgotten it! We already look forward to the next races because we want to repeat these kind of results: so far we have achieved an excellent level of competitiveness, so we arrive in Indianapolis with the aim to fight again for the top positions. Indy is certainly not the most beautiful track in the calendar and in addition it also has a slippery asphalt on which the tyres suffer a lot; however, some corners are not bad at all and from our side we will do our best, as always!”.
“Three weeks ago we started the summer break in the best possible way, getting our first win with Xavier and Federal Oil. Obviously it was a great satisfaction for the whole team as well as a big boost of confidence for the second half of the season. An important victory also for the Championship: Simeon is in fact currently sixth in the standings, with a limited gap from the riders in front of him. We look forward to returning to the track at Indianapolis, because so far have proven to be competitive in every circuit, so we are confident that we can be back fighting for another important result”.
Red Bull KTM Ajo return to action with full team in Indianapolis
Miguel Oliveira, back from injury, Brad Binder and Karel Hanika face Round 10 of the World Championship after the summer break.
08/05/2015 - Indianapolis Motor Speedway, USA
After three weeks without racing, the Red Bull KTM Ajo team this week travel to the United States for the second time this year, to contest the tenth round of the Moto3 World Championship. The big news for the team is the return to competition of Miguel Oliveira, who after an incident in FP1 in Germany and a subsequent operation to his left hand, will be back onboard his KTM. He and his teammates, Brad Binder and Karel Hanika, come to Indianapolis motivated and eager to move up in the standings.
Miguel Oliveira -third in the overall standings with 102 points- never gives up and will continue to fight to take good results that allow him to dream of the title. The Portuguese does not come to America 100% fit, following the operation on his left hand that prevented him from racing at the German Grand Prix. In his 4 visits to Indianapolis, the Red Bull KTM Ajo rider has always placed in the Top 10, with fourth in 2012 his best result.
Meanwhile, Brad Binder reaches the race hoping to be among the fastest riders on the grid. The South African will tries to perform at his best, which has allowed him to place on the podium once this year, at the circuit where he made his debut in the World Championship in 2011.
Karel Hanika visits the legendary track for the second time. The Czech, who has added two front rows to his CV in recent rounds, faces the second half of the World Championship season with the intention of continuing in the front group and finishing the job in the final stretch of the races. Last year, Hanika took thirteenth place on his debut at the track.
The Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix will be held on Sunday at 11am local time, 5pm CET. Last season, Jack Miller got third for Red Bull KTM Ajo.
44 MIGUEL OLIVEIRA
"The holidays didn’t go as I expected. I had to recover from the injury that I suffered in the German GP, which in between gym and physiotherapy, took up most of my time. Nonetheless, I managed to spend some time with family and friends.
Indianapolis will be a bit strange for me, I'm not feeling 100% to face the challenge of the weekend. But all the points count and they are precious for the final standings, so I’lI have to adapt to the circuit and give my best every time I go out on track.
I have no doubt that the fact that I’m going to compete this weekend is due only to the medical team led by Dr. Morais Sarmento and the therapist Dr. Maria Filomena Rocha, who were able to help me recover in record time."
41 BRAD BINDER
"After three weeks without racing we arrive at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, a track that I think will perfectly suit our bike, being faster and more flowing. I think this is what we need to take a step forward.
I feel good, I have spent some days off in South Africa, training hard to get to this weekend more prepared than ever. We cannot settle for the seventh place in Germany, because we know we can do better and move up.
It is a track that I like and that brings me good memories because I raced my first GP here. I hope to get a good result."
98 KAREL HANIKA
"The summer break has helped me to train hard to face the second half of the season. I think Indianapolis is a circuit that can be quite favourable for us, with smooth, flowing corners. It will be the second time we have raced there as I debuted last year and didn’t do badly, finishing in the points. This year we will have to lower some tenths from our pace if we want to be the leading group.
Overall it's a track that I like and a race at which I arrive very motivated after three weeks without racing."
The fight for the Moto2 title resumes in Indianapolis
Ajo Motorsport rider Johann Zarco faces second half of the season chasing Moto2 title dream.
08/05/2015 - Indianapolis Motor Speedway, USA
Johann Zarco is the current Moto2 championship leader, with a 65-point lead over his nearest rival after an excellent first half of the season. The Frenchman is enjoying the best start to a campaing since the Moto2 class was introduced in 2010, thanks to his 8 consecutive podiums from the first 9 races and victories in Argentina, Catalonia and the Netherlands. After a spectacular opening to the year, the Ajo Motorsport rider intends to prolong his excellent form this weekend in Indianapolis, the second US event of the year, and continue taking giant steps towards the title.
This will be a new challenge for the Frenchman, who in his seven seasons in the World Championship has never taken victory at 'The Brickyard.' His best result at the unique track within the famous oval circuit was fifth in the 125cc class in 2011, with his best Moto2 placing eighth in 2012.
The tenth race of the Moto2 season takes place on Sunday at 11:20am local time. This will be the first of two consecutive weekends of racing.
5 JOHANN ZARCO
"Over these past three weeks I have had time for a bit of everything. I've disconnected and also trained hard for the second half of the season, but I have really wanted to get back on my Kalex. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is special. As at Sachsenring, I've always struggled a bit with the Moto2 there, but also in the 125cc class as the asphalt is quite slippery. I've never felt truly comfortable. This year, with a new team and a new bike, it's a new challenge. We know each other well, we know our weaknesses and how to counter them. I want to fight for victory as we came very close in Germany. I don't want to put any pressure on myself, so I'll just enjoy a great track to ride at."
The Sky Racing Team VR46 battle set to recommence at Indianapolis
Fenati was one of the protagonists in last year’s Red Bull Indianapolis GP as he finished 2nd. Debut for Migno on the U.S. speedway
Now that the Summer break is almost over, the Sky Racing Team VR46 is ready to get back to business on the circuit of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway for the tenth race of the Moto3 World Championship: the Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix.
A track evoking fond memories in Romano Fenati who, last year at Indy, got so close to the victory after a breathtaking race that he finished just 0.065 seconds behind the race winner Vazquez. First-time ever on the U.S. speedway for Andrea Migno. For the rider from Romagna, this is the last of the scheduled tracks he had to get acquainted with this season.
After the Sachsenring race, three weeks of intense work for the Sky Racing Team VR46: the two young Italian motorcycling talents have been training nonstop to stay focused ahead of the season restart, by combining physical preparation at the gym with driving practice. Just a week ago, indeed, the two VR46 Riders Academy riders met on the Misano World Circuit Marco Simoncelli for one of the usual training sessions with their bikes.
Romano Fenati is also the protagonist of a special “journey”, on air on Saturday on Sky Sport MotoGP HD within the 6.15 pm “Paddock Live” slot leading up to the Moto3 qualifying. Interviewed by Marco Selvetti on his way from the hotel to the legendary U.S. circuit, the rider from Ascoli reveals his feelings ahead of a GP boasting the rich history and tradition of the Indianapolis Motor speedway: «The two U.S. speedways (Indianapolis and Austin, editor’s note) are very exciting, a bit different from the other tracks on the calendar, but most of all America is awesome, I love it and I have always had a lot of fun travelling around it».
And about his teammate, Andrea Migno, he adds: «I have known him since he was a little kid, we raced on minibikes together, we did the MiniGP together and then we have met again in the Moto3 World Championship. We train together every day, he is a very nice guy and I love him, he is a genuine person. In the box, even if the session doesn’t turn out well, he will cheer us up and bring smile back to our faces».
PABLO NIETO / Team Manager
Indianapolis marks the halfway point of the season and the whole team is looking forward to start again after the summer break. We come to Indianapolis with a lot of motivation and a good dose of optimism after the results achieved in recent races. Indy is a beautiful, technical and at the same time tough track. The track particularly suits Fenati’s driving style, as proved by his great second-place finish last year. During this three-week-long break, Romano has been training hard and he is in great shape, ready to give his best for the whole weekend. The same goes for Andrea, he is very motivated and although he does not know this track, I think he can do well once he has found the right feeling with the bike set-up.
ROMANO FENATI / Rider
The Summer break is almost over and I can’t wait to jump back on my bike saddle. These weeks without races have been useful to break away from the globe-trotting routine but also in terms of training: I have continued my training plan at the gym and I have trained with the other guys of the VR46 Riders Academy. And on top of that, being able to spend some time with my closest friends was of great help to recharge the batteries ahead of the second half of the season. I’m heading to Indy in great shape, looking forward to pull off a great race and do well. The track is good, it gave me some satisfaction in the past and I hope I’ll be able to do a great job with my team right from the start.
ANDREA MIGNO / Rider
Finally back on track, I honestly could not wait! In this three-week-long break I've been training hard at the gym, at the Ranch and in Misano to get in the best possible shape ahead of the Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix. First and foremost, it will be key to try and get acquainted with a circuit I don’t know. Then, we will have to do our best to get ready for the race. The approach in the first free practice sessions will be crucial to find the right feeling with the bike and the track, so that we can have our say in Sunday's race.
LEOPARD RACING ARRIVE WITH CONFIDENCE IN INDIANAPOLIS FOR THE START OF THE SECOND PART OF THE SEASON
Re-energized after summer break, Leopard Racing’s heroes Danny Kent and Efren Vazquez look to pick up where they left off last time in Germany whilst Japanese youngster Hiroki Ono makes his first visit to the world famous Brickyard at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway this weekend.
Leopard Racing has shown total dominance during the German round three weeks’ time ago, celebrating a superb one-two finish with Kent victorious ahead of Vazquez in the last race before teams and riders left the scene for holiday time. Series leader Kent and team mate Vazquez now will be hoping to repeat the perfect Sachsenring outcome this time again.
The 22 year young Honda rider from Great Britain spent his break in Australia with some extra training sessions to get ready and fit for the probably most challenging part of the year in which he is very eager to defend his comfortable championship lead in every single race till the very last end. However, Kent looks forward with confidence to the remaining nine races, certain that he is getting stronger than the five time winner in 2015 already has shown thus far. For the Indianapolis Grand Prix Kent has set a particular personal goal as we wants to play his part to help Honda to celebrate their 700th victory in Grand Prix history this weekend.
Team mate Efren Vazquez was the man in second place in the last race before the summer break. Thanks to continue his preparation during the last weeks the experienced Spaniard from the Basque area was able to maintain his condition at a 100 percent level. So he arrived in a good shape for round ten at the amazing Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Vazquez lies in seventh in the Wolrd Standings with a short gap to second placed Italian rider Enea Bastianini.
On the other side of Leopard Racing’s team garage, rookie Hiroki Ono got already his first impressions from the 4.1 kilometre long track at the Brickyard in Indianapolis. However, the young Japanese rider is confident that the track will suit his riding style.
The schedule for the Indianapolis Grand Prix is equal to the normal one for most of the Championship events but most important with a six hour time difference to Central Europe time. The 4.1 kilometre long Grand Prix Circuit is located in the infield at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway but also using some parts of the oval track - Home of the Indy 500 - including the main straight with the world famous Brickyard which marks the start and finish line.
#7 Efren VAZQUEZ - World Championship position 5 (96 points):
“Yes, I really look forward to Indianapolis because I won my first ever grand prix at this track last year. So memories are really, really good but also the motivation is high to start the second half of the season, not only because of our strong performance during the last race before the break in Germany resulting with a fine second place. I was training hard during the summer in order to be well prepared for the remaining nine races and in doing so I think I got back my physical condition even more at 100 percent, compared to the first half of the season. Yes I think we’re now in an excellent situation for the second part this year for which I just concentrate to fight for second place in the championship which is occupied by Enea Bastiannini for now. Our gap to second place isn’t that big whereas Danny is in a comfortable lead. I think it will be really difficult to fight for the title this year but nevertheless the target is to fight for race wins and further podiums in every remaining race, starting with Indianapolis this weekend.”
#52 Danny KENT - World Championship leader (190 points):
“So for the three weeks off I went to Australia to have a small break and to train with buddy Jack (Miller). I’ve had a great time there but now I’m ready to get back on my Honda and start racing again. Even it was a long trip from Australia straight to Indianapolis earlier this week but it also was a great experience for me at all. The first half of the season has gone amazing, we’ve done a really hard work form the very first beginning of our project and the result is shown by a 66 points lead. So now we just have to be clever and just try to maintain a good point’s lead for the remaining season. The plan for me as always is to try and win the race each Sunday and to be as strong during the second half of the yeas as I was till the break, even if not stronger, because my favourite circuits are still to come. But, actually I like Indianapolis layout as well. This weekend Honda can get their 700th Grand Prix win and I would love to be the rider to help to achieve that!”
#76 Hiroki ONO - World Championship position 20 (15 points):
“I’ve have seen many pictures from the world famous Indianapolis Motor Speedway thus far but to see it in reality I just can say: it’s wowing at all. It’s hardly to imaging how huge is this place; it’s very impressive. Anyway, I had good trip to the United States and I already has made my first visit to the track by walking around. I think the layout should suite my riding style due to its many fast and flowing sections. So I look forward to well this weekend as I want to start strong into the second half of the season. During the summer break I enjoyed some holidays but I also continued my training in order to be well prepared for the second part this year. I really look forward to get on track again.”
Indianapolis Circuit Surface Provides Lap Record Potential
• Andrea Migno Proved To Be Dunlop #ForeverForward League High Flyer In Germany
After a three-week break riders are heading to the USA for the FIM Moto Championship races at the Indianapolis circuit in Indiana. The track, resurfaced before the 2014 event, has potential to provide faster lap times after the race use from the past 12 months. With the 2014 experience and data, Dunlop’s engineers have mainly selected medium and hard options to suit the conditions.
Indianapolis 2014 Highlights
Efren Vazquez took his first win of the year in the USA. The tyres were put through their paces at the newly surfaced track. Not only were the tyres durable, they were fast with Rins and Miller setting best lap and circuit records. Kallio set both records in Moto2 while also winning his third race of the year.
Fact: Kallio’s best lap of 1:36.883 was over five seconds faster than the previous record set by Pol Espagaro in 2012.
Andrea Migno was the only rider to break into double Dunlop #ForeverForward points at the Sachsenring, gaining an impressive 13 positions during the race. Romano Fenati led the league, for place gains from grid to race finish, in the early stages and regained places in the table by moving through the field from twelfth to fourth in Germany and now lies third.
Simon Betney, International Event Manager, Dunlop Motorsport:
“With race experience from last year we have a base-line for the new track surface so can be confident that the riders have the best tyres options for the conditions now that the track has mellowed a little. Generally it takes three seasons for a new surface to reach its long-term characteristics so our choice may change again next year once we see whether the riders opt for the medium or hard options depending on how quickly the conditions have changed.”